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A medical condition in which a person’s excess body fat is severe enough to reduce lifespan and threaten health. A person is considered obese when their Body Mass Index (BMI), a measurement of height to weight, exceeds a clearly defined threshold (35). A person can be overweight, and not obese, if their BMI is not (yet) high enough. Obesity has historically been linked to excess calorie intake and insufficient calorie expenditure, but nutritionists are now considering the role of genetic insulin insensitivity, which encourages fat storage when carbohydrates constitute a significant amount of daily calories. Obese individuals are at a high risk of developing Type 2 (lifestyle related) diabetes because of the close relationship between insulin-resistance, hyperinsulinemia (elevated insulin levels in the bloodstream) and fat storage.

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